Environmental factors

A subject that is discussed a lot is climate change and how we should deal with it. It also influences tourism demand. Climate and weather are generally important attributes that are strongly associated with holidays and travelling. The explosion of mass charter tourism in the 1950s and 1960s developed first and foremost in coastal destinations, for sun and sea (e.g. to the Caribbean, the Canary Islands, Mallorca etc.). But climate and weather are also determining factors for other types of experiences and destinations, like winter sports in the Alps, the Ice Hotel in Swedish Lapland and cruises.

With a change in the climate, demand can also change. Destinations lose their ability to offer specific experiences, but also create new experiences in new destinations where conditions have changed. In one scenario for the Caribbean, where the number of tropical storms and temperature are set to rise, a reduction in tourism of between 1-5% per year is expected, which would hit economies that are strongly reliant on tourism income hard. Natural catastrophes, for example tropical storms or earthquakes, have been shown to have a dampening effect on demand in the affected areas.

Moore, W. R. (2010). The impact of climate change on Caribbean tourism demand. Current Issues in Tourism, 13(5), 495-505.
Turner, L., & Ash, J. (1975). The golden hordes : international tourism and the pleasure periphery. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Wall, G., & Mathieson, A. (2006). Tourism: changes, impacts, and opportunities (2. ed.). Harlow, Eng. ; New York: Pearson Prentice Hall.